Lyme borreliosis complex

What is Lyme disease?

Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria responsible for Lyme Borreliosis Complex

Lyme Borreliosis Complex, commonly known as Lyme Disease, is an inflammatory condition initially characterized by a rash, headache, fever, and chills, followed by potential arthritis and neurological and cardiac disorders. Only about 9% get the classic bull’s eye rash. Others may get another type of Erythema Migrans (EM) rash or may get no rash at all. Rash at a location other than the bite site may be disseminated disease. Symptoms may occur days or months after a tick bite. It is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, a type of spirochete bacteria transmitted by ticks. A spirochete is a slender, spirally undulating bacteria. Borrelia burgdorferi is present in both North America and Europe.

Until 2016, it was the exclusive known cause of Lyme Borreliosis Complex in North America. Recently, Borrelia mayonii, discovered in the midwestern United States, has also been identified as a causative agent for Lyme Borreliosis Complex. Early symptoms of Borrelia mayonii are fever, headaches, rash, and neck pain. Different from Borrelia burgdorferi, it may include nausea & vomiting, diffuse rashes, higher concentration of bacteria in blood.

The term “Lyme Borreliosis Complex” was coined by Dr. Jemsek to describe what is commonly referred to as Lyme Disease. If left untreated, Lyme Borreliosis Complex can progress to advanced stages, and people may develop neurological symptoms and heart problems and have an approximately 60 percent chance of developing Lyme arthritis. (Ticks and Lyme Disease, n.d.)

Findings from patient samples indicate that some strains of Lyme bacteria, called Borrelia burgdorferi, have a protective outer layer. This layer contains more of a specific protein that acts like armor, making it harder for the human immune system to fight against the bacteria. This protective mechanism increases the bacteria’s ability to spread throughout the body. (Jacob E. Lemieux et al., 2023)

LYME SYMPTOMS

Symptoms of Chronic Lyme May Include

Musculoskeletal
Joint/muscle pain in feet, ankle pain, shin splints, joint pain or swelling, stiffness of the joints, muscle pain or cramps that migrate, TMJ/TMJD jaw pain (Temporomandibular joint dysfunction), neck creaks & cracks, neck stiffness.
Reproductive
Testicular pain/pelvic pain, menstrual irregularity, milk production (lactation), sexual dysfunction, or loss of libido.
Cardiac/Pulmonary
Chest pain or rib soreness, shortness of breath, heart palpitations, pulse skips, slow pulse, heart block, heart murmur.
Neurological
Muscle twitching, headache, tingling, numbness, burning or stabbing sensations, facial paralysis (resembling Bell’s palsy), dizziness, poor balance, increased motion sickness, light-headedness, wooziness, difficulty walking, tremor, confusion, difficulty thinking/concentrating/reading, forgetfulness, poor short-term memory, disorientation (getting lost, going to the wrong place), difficulty with speech, double or blurry vision, eye pain, blindness, increased floaters, increased sensitivity to light or sound, buzzing or ringing in ears, ear pain, decreased hearing, seizure activity, white matter lesions, low blood pressure.
Neuropsychiatric
Mood swings, violent outbursts, irritability, depression, disturbed sleep (too much, too little, early awakening), personality changes, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), paranoia, panic/anxiety attacks, hallucinations.
Gastrointestinal
Nausea or vomiting, GERD, change in bowel function (constipation, diarrhea), gastritis, abdominal cramping, cystitis, irritable bladder or bladder dysfunction, newly diagnosed irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
Other
Fever, sweats, or chills, weight change (loss or gain), fatigue, tiredness, hair loss, swollen glands, sore throat, difficulty swallowing, swelling around the eyes, & swelling in feet.

Lyme disease can have both physical and emotional effects on individuals. Our comprehensive monitoring ensures that our patients receive the most effective care possible, with our healthcare professionals collaborating with specialists, providing a holistic approach to care that addresses all aspects. With a focus on patient support services and a commitment to the latest advancements, our clinic aims to provide the most effective, well-rounded, and personalized care to optimize outcomes for individuals dealing with Lyme disease.

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